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Wednesday, August 10, 2011

સોશિયલ વર્કરની નોંધપોથી: 'રોમાની' જીપ્સીની દાસ્તાન

ગઇ કાલની પોસ્ટમાં જીપ્સીના ભારતીય ઉદ્ગમનો ઉલ્લેખ કર્યો ત્યારે મિત્રોના મનમાં જીપ્સી લોકો વિશે વધુ જાણવાની જીજ્ઞાસા થઇ.
ઇતિહાસકારો તથા નૃવંશશાસ્ત્રી (genetic scientists)ના મત અનુસાર જીપ્સીઓ મૂળ ભારતના છે. કેટલાકે વૈજ્ઞાનીક તેમજ ઐતિહાસીક સંશોધન દ્વારા જણાવ્યું છે કે તેઓ મૂળ રાજસ્થાન કે મધ્યભારતના વતની હતા. આ લડાયક પ્રજા હતી અને મહંમદ ગઝનીની સામે પણ તેમના યોદ્ધા લડ્યા હતા.
અહીં કેટલીક રસપ્રદ વાતો મૂકીશ.
જીપ્સીઓને યુરોપમાં 'રોમાની' કહેવાય છે, જેનું મુખ્ય કારણ તેમની ટોળીના પુરૂષો 'રોમ' કહેવાય છે - જેને કેટલાક લોકો મર્યાદા પુરુષોત્તમ રામનો તળપદી ઉચ્ચાર માને છે. તેમના કબીલાના સરદાર 'Bara Rom' અથવા બડા રોમના નામથી ઓળખાય છે. નીચે વિકીપીડીયાના અંશ ઉતાર્યા છે જેમાં સ્પષ્ટ કહેવાયું છે (આપણા વાચક શૈલેષભાઇ તથા ચિરાગે આ બાબતમાં પૃચ્છા કરી છે) કે તેમની મૂળ ભાષા સંસ્કૃતમાંથી ઉતરી આવી છે. નીચેનો લેખ વિકીપીડીયામાંથી ઉતારવામાં આવ્યો છે, જે માટે તેમના સંપાદકશ્રીનો આભાર માનું છું.

Origin

First arrival of Gypsies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden"baptized heathens" and drawn wearing Saracene style clothes and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749).
The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Romani people was long an enigma. Indian (mixed) origin, was suggested on linguistic grounds as early as 200 years ago. One theory suggests that the name ultimately derives from a form ḍōmba- 'man of low caste living by singing and music', attested in Classical Sanskrit.
Linguistic evidence indicates the Romanies originated from the Rajasthani people, emigrating from India towards the northwest no earlier than the 11th century. Contemporary populations sometimes suggested as sharing a close relationship to the Romani are the Dom people of Central Asia and the Banjara of India.
Genetic evidence is connecting the Romani people and the Jat people, the descendants of groups, which emigrated from India towards Central Asia during the medieval period. There are serological similarities shared with several populations that linked the two people in a 1992 study.
In 2007 a limited medical survey of haplotypes frequently found in the Jat Sikhs and Jats of Haryana, and those found in the Romani populations revealed no matches.

Language origins

The cause of the Romani diaspora is unknown. However, the most probable conclusion is that the Romanies were part of the military in Northern India. When there were repeated raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This occurred between AD 1000 and 1030.[citation needed]
This departure date is assumed because, linguistically speaking, the Romani language is a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA) − it has only two genders(masculine and feminine). Until around the year 1000, the Indo-Aryan languages, named Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). By the turn of the 2nd millennium, they changed into the NIA phase, losing the neuter gender. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few became feminine. For instance, the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages is proposed to prove that the change occurred in the Indian subcontinent.
It is therefore not considered possible that the ancestors of the Romani people left India prior to AD 1000. They then stayed in the Byzantine Empire for several hundred years. However, the Muslim expansion, mainly made by the Seljuk Turks, into the Byzantine Empire recommenced the movement of the Romani people.
Until the mid-to-late 18th century, theories of the origin of the Romani were mostly speculative. In 1782, Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger published his research that pointed out the relationship between the Romani language and Hindustani. Subsequent work supported the hypothesis that Romani shared a common origin with the Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India, with Romani grouping most closely with Sinhalese in a recent study.
The majority of historians accepted this as evidence of an Indian origin for the Romanies, though some scholars maintained that the Romanies acquired the language through contact with Indian merchants.
Domari and Romani language

Domari was once thought to be the "sister language" of Romani, the two languages having split after the departure from the Indian subcontinent, but more recent research suggests that the differences between them are significant enough to treat them as two separate languages within the Central zone (Hindustani) group of languages. The Dom and the Rom are therefore likely to be descendants of two different migration waves out of India, separated by several centuries.
Numerals in the Romani, Lomavren and Domari languages, with Hindi forms for comparison.

Hindi Romani Lomavren Domari
1 ek ekh, jekh yak, yek yika
2 do duj lui dī
3 tīn trin tərin tærən
4 cār štar išdör štar
5 pāñc pandž, pendž pandž
6 che šov šeš šaš
7 sāt ifta haft xaut
8 āţh oxto hašt xaišt
9 nau inja nu na
10 das deš las des
20 bīs biš vist wīs
100 sau šel saj saj



Europe

Around 1360, a fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu. It mainly used Romani serfs and the Romanies on the island were subservient.
By the 14th century, the Romanies had reached the Balkans and Bohemia; by the 15th century,Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal; and by the 16th century, Russia, Denmark, Scotland and Sweden (although DNA evidence from mid-11th century skeletons in Norwich suggest that at least a few individuals may have arrived earlier, perhaps due to Viking enslavement of Romani from the eastern Mediterranean or liaisons with the Varangians).
Some Romanies migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. Romanies began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 20th century, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romanies also settled in Latin America.

According to historian Norman Davies, a 1378 law passed by the governor of Nauplion in the Greek Peloponnese confirming privileges for the "atstingani" is "the first documented record of Romany Gypsies in Europe." Similar documents, again representing the Romanies as a group that had been exiled from Egypt, record them reaching Braşov, Transylvania in 1416; Hamburg, Holy Roman Empire in 1418; and Paris in 1427. A chronicler for a Parisian journal described them as dressed in a manner that the Parisians considered shabby, and reports that the Church had them leave town because they practiced palm-reading and fortune telling.
In Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldova, Romanies were enslaved for five centuries, until abolition in the mid-19th century.
In the late 19th century, the Romani culture inspired in their neighbors a wealth of artistic works. Among the most notable works are Carmen and La Vie de Bohème.

Settlement

In 1758, Maria Theresa of Austria began a program of assimilation to turn Romanies into ujmagyar (new Hungarians). The government built permanent huts to replace mobile tents, forbade travel, and forcefully removed children from their parents to be fostered by non-Romani. By 1894, the majority of Romanies counted in a Hungarian national census were sedentary. In 1830, Romani children in Nordhausen were taken from their families to be fostered by Germans.
Russia also encouraged settlement of all nomads in 1783, and the Polish introduced a settlement law in 1791. Bulgaria and Serbia banned nomadism in the 1880s.
In 1783, racial legislation against Romanies was repealed in the United Kingdom, and a specific "Turnpike Act" was established in 1822 to prevent nomads from camping on the roadside, strengthened in the Highways Act of 1835.

Pre-war organization
In 1879, a national meeting of Romanies was held in the Hungarian town of Kisfalu (now Pordašinci, Slovenia). Romanies in Bulgaria set up a conference in 1919 to protest for their right to vote, and a Romani journal, Istiqbal (Future) was founded in 1923.
In the Soviet Union, the All-Russian Union of Gypsies was organized in 1925 with a journal, Romani Zorya (Romani Dawn) beginning two years later. TheRomengiro Lav (Romani Word) writer's circle encouraged works by authors like Nikolay Aleksandrovich Pankov and Nina Dudarova.
A General Association of the Gypsies of Romania was established in 1933 with a national conference, and two journals, Neamul Tiganesc (Gypsy Nation) andTimpul (Time). An "international" conference was organized in Bucharest the following year.

During World War II, the Nazis murdered 220,000 to 1,500,000 Romanies in an attempted genocide referred to as the Porajmos.[34] Like the Jews, they were sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment inconcentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen on the Eastern Front.

પૂરો લેખ વાંચવા માટે નીચેની લિંક જોવા વિનંતિ છે.